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fighting ships of the world

UNITED STATES NAVY (UNITED STATES OF AMERICA)

CRUISERS

OMAHA light cruisers (1923-1925)

Detroit 1945

Richmond 1945

No Name Yard No Builder Laid down Launched Comm Fate
CL4 Omaha 30 Todd, Tacoma 6/12/1918 14/12/1920 24/2/1923 stricken 11/1945
CL5 Milwaukee 31 Todd, Tacoma 13/12/1918 24/3/1921 20/6/1923 to Soviet Union 4/1944-3/1949 (Мурманск) (Murmansk), stricken 3/1949
CL6 Cincinnati 32 Todd, Tacoma 15/5/1920 23/5/1921 1/1/1924 stricken 11/1945
CL7 Raleigh 1382 Bethlehem, Quincy 16/8/1920 25/10/1922 6/2/1924 stricken 11/1945
CL8 Detroit 1383 Bethlehem, Quincy 10/11/1920 29/6/1922 31/7/1923 stricken 1/1946
CL9 Richmond 448 Cramp, Philadelphia 16/2/1920 29/9/1921 2/7/1923 stricken 1/1946
CL10 Concord 449 Cramp, Philadelphia 29/3/1920 15/12/1921 3/11/1923 stricken 12/1945
CL11 Trenton 501 Cramp, Philadelphia 18/8/1920 16/4/1923 19/4/1924 stricken 1/1946
CL12 Marblehead 502 Cramp, Philadelphia 4/8/1920 9/10/1923 8/9/1924 stricken 11/1945
CL13 Memphis 503 Cramp, Philadelphia 14/10/1920 17/4/1924 4/2/1925 stricken 1/1946
  

Displacement normal, t

7050

Displacement full, t

9508

Length, m

167.6 wl 169.4 oa

Breadth, m

16.9

Draught, m

4.11

No of shafts

4

Machinery

4 sets Westinghouse geared steam turbines, 12 Yarrow boilers

Power, h. p.

90000

Max speed, kts

34

Fuel, t

oil 1852

Endurance, nm(kts)

8460(10)

Armour, mm

belt: 76, deck: 38, CT: 32

Armament

2 x 2 - 152/53 Mk 12/14/18, 8 x 1 - 152/53 Mk 12/14/18, 4 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 10/18, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, 2 x 2 - 533 TT, 2 catapults, 2 seaplanes (VE-9, UO, MO)

Complement

458

Ship project history: Omaha class cruisers were built in limits of the arrogant shipbuilding programme of 1916. One of the main requirements to a 7000t cruiser-scout was 35kt speed. This circumstance has predetermined an appreciable out-of-balance of main project particulars. The hull was as much as possible narrow, having given to clear "destroyer" lines. Thus a construction for weight economy was probably facilitated, that in a combination with very powerful and, as consequence, heavy-weight machinery led to vibration on full speed. The excessive thrust on achievement of high speed has led to displacement, assigned on arms and protection, has appeared notably less, than at foreign contemporaries: so, only 8% of displacement was assigned on protection. Besides, the desire to ensure maximum fire at fore and aft angles has led to introduction of doubtful arrangement of main artillery in two-level casemates fore and aft: they notably made ship ends heavier, thus it is not enough defending guns from fire of the opponent as had only splinterproof protection. According to the design new cruiser should have 7050t displacement, 35kt speed, armament consisted of 10 152mm/53 guns (4 in fore casemates, 4 aft and 2 more guns on open mounts amidships), 2 76mm/50 AA guns and 2 twin 533mm TTs.

Building contract was signed 8/7/1916, however first ships were laid down only two years later after the design was significantly remade (basically because of critical expressions about insufficient armament). 152mm open mounts were refused, but twin turrets were appeared at ship ends (even more having increased a local overload). Torpedo armament was strengthened, having added to two twin TTs on a main deck two more triple on upper (fwd from a stern casemate). Originally planned quarter-deck catapult was refused, being replaced by two trainable on an upper deck. Design changes have led to displacement growth approximately on 400t, that decreasing speed on 1kt. For the first time in USN practice machinery was arranged on en echelon: engine rooms were placed between fore and stern boiler rooms groups. Turbines and boilers were produced by different companies and that has led to appreciable disorder of running characteristics, and the ships have appeared are shared on group with "high endurance" (CL9-13) and group with "low endurance" (CL4-8). However a planed endurance (10000nm at 10kts) was never possible to achieve.

In 1940 it was planed to convert the Omahas to air defence cruisers armed by 2 twin 152/53mm guns, 7 single 127/38mm DP guns and 6 quadruple 28mm MGs, but their stability in this configuration caused concern and modernization was cancelled.

Ship protection: Main 5.8m high belt protected only machinery and was closed by 38mm fore and 76mm aft bulkheads. Main deck consisted of 22mm STS armour and 15mm plating. Guns had only 6mm protection.

Modernizations: 1924 - 1925, all: - 2 x 2 - 533 TT

1925 - 1941, Cincinnati, Raleigh, Detroit, Richmond: - 2 x 1 - 152/53

1925 - 1941, Marblehead: - 1 x1 - 152/53

1941, Omaha, Milwaukee, Detroit, Richmond, Trenton, Marblehead, Memphis: + 4 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 20, 8 x 1 - 12.7/90

1941, Cincinnati, Raleigh, Concord: + 2 x 4 - 28/75 Mk 1

1942, Omaha, Milwaukee, Trenton, Memphis: - 2 x 1 - 152/53, 1 x 1 - 76/50, 8 x 1 - 12.7/90; + 2 x 4 - 28/75 Mk 1, 8 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, SC, Mk 3 radars

1942, Cincinnati, Raleigh: - 8 x 1 - 12.7/90; + 3 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 20, 8 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, SC, Mk 3 radars

1942, Detroit, Richmond, Marblehead: - 1 x 1 - 76/50, 8 x 1 - 12.7/90; + 2 x 4 - 28/75 Mk 1, 8 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, SC, Mk 3 radars

1942, Concord: - 2 x 1 - 152/53, 8 x 1 - 12.7/90; + 3 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 20, 8 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, SC, Mk 3 radars

late 1942, Cincinnati, Memphis: - SC radar; + SK radar

1943 - 1944, Omaha, Milwaukee, Detroit, Concord, Trenton, Marblehead: - 1 x 1 - 76/50, 2 x 4 - 28/75, SC radar; + 3 x 2 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 4 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, SK, 2x SG, Mk 3 (2nd) radars

1943 - 1944, Cincinnati: - 2 x 4 - 28/75, 2 x 3 - 533 TT; + 1 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 20, 3 x 2 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 2 x 1 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 2x SG, Mk 3 (2nd) radars

1943 - 1944, Raleigh: - 2 x 4 - 28/75, SC radar; + 1 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 20, 2x SG, SK, Mk 3 (2nd) radars

1943 - 1944, Richmond: - 1 x 1 - 76/50, 2 x 4 - 28/75; + 3 x 2 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 4 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, 2x SG, Mk 3 (2nd) radars

1943 - 1944, Memphis: - 2 x 4 - 28/75; + 2 x 2 - 40/56 Mk 1/2, 4 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 4, 2x SG, Mk 3 (2nd) radars

1945, Detroit: - 2 x 1 - 152/53, 2 x 3 - 533 TT; + 2 x 2 - 40/56 Mk 1/2

1/1946, Detroit, Richmond, Trenton: 2 x 2 - 152/53 Mk 16, 6 x 1 - 152/53 Mk 13, 6 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 11/20, 3 x 2 - 40/60 Mk 1, 12 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 10, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, 2 catapults, 2 seaplanes, SK, 2x SG, 2x Mk 3 radars

1/1946, Memphis: 2 x 2 - 152/53 Mk 16, 6 x 1 - 152/53 Mk 13, 7 x 1 - 76/50 Mk 11/20, 2 x 2 - 40/60 Mk 1, 12 x 1 - 20/70 Mk 10, 2 x 3 - 533 TT, 2 catapults, 2 seaplanes, 2x SG, SK, 2x Mk 3 radars

Naval service: Raleigh was badly damaged in Pearl Harbour 7/12/1941 by Japanese air torpedo and was under repair till July, 1942. Marblehead 5/1/1942 received 2 direct bomb hits and some near-misses, and was under repair till the end of 1942.

 

Concord 1935

© Ivan Gogin, 2014-15