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fighting ships of the world

ROYAL NAVY - UNITED KINGDOM

CRUISERS

CALEDON light cruisers (1917)

Caledon 1917

Name No Yard No Builder Laid down Launched Comp Fate
Caledon 69, 22, 65,D53 828 Cammell Laird, Birkenhead 17/3/1916 25/11/1916 3/1917 sold for BU 1/1948
Cassandra 3C, 32, 04 456 Vickers, Barrow 3/1916 25/11/1916 6/1917 sunk 5/12/1918
Caradoc A0, 28, 55, D60 476 Scotts, Greenock 21/2/1916 23/12/1916 6/1917 sold for BU 4/1946
Calypso 24, 82, D61 486 Hawthorn Leslie, Hebburn 7/2/1916 24/1/1917 6/1917 sunk 12/6/1940

 

Displacement normal, t

4120

Displacement full, t

4950

Length, m

137.2

Breadth, m

13.0

Draught, m

5.00

No of shafts

2

Machinery

Parsons geared steam turbines, 6 Yarrow boilers

Power, h. p.

40000

Max speed, kts

29

Fuel, t

oil 935

Endurance, nm(kts) 5900(10)
Armour, mm

belt: 76 - 32, deck: 25, CT: 152, gun shields: 25

Armament

Caledon, Cassandra: 5 x 1 - 152/45 BL Mk XII, 2 x 1 - 76/45 20cwt QF Mk I, 4 x 1 - 47/40 3pdr Hotchkiss Mk I, 4 x 2 - 533 TT, flying-off platform, 1 aircraft (Pup)

Calypso, Caradoc: 5 x 1 - 152/45 BL Mk XII, 2 x 1 - 76/45 20cwt QF Mk I, 4 x 1 - 47/40 3pdr Hotchkiss Mk I, 4 x 2 - 533 TT

Complement

400 (437 as flagship)

Ship project history: By late 1915, although 41 light cruisers were in service or nearly complete only 24 were available for the Grand Fleet (5 with the battle squadrons, 12 with destroyers). Accordingly, six 'Improved Centaur' class were ordered in December 1915, incorporating many wartime lessons, including a heavier armament of deck-mounted TT. They could easily be distinguished from the earlier ships by the raked bow. The improvements were mainly to improve seakeeping (a slightly longer forecastle (and to compensate for topweight 0.2m more beam). Like the Centaurs they proved remarkably tough ships. The fifth and sixth ships were held over to form part of the next class, Ceres.

"C" type cruisers were created for service in the North Sea under 1915 year design and become obsolete to the beginning of 1930th, and in 1935 the decision to convert them to AA ships was accepted. Two prototypes were appeared successful and during the period 1936-1940 it was planed rearm 11 "C" type ships. Caledon passed update since September, 1942 till December, 1943.

The arms structure on her significantly differed from earlier conversions: the number of 102mm mounts was cut to three, but number of light AA guns was significantly raised. After conversion of Caledon the program have ultimately ended: there was no sense to spend means for obsolete ships.

Ship protection: Armoured belt protected ship at full length, its thickness was 76mm abreast machinery spaces (51mm armour on 25mm plating), 51mm (38mm armour on 13mm plating) aft and 38mm (25mm armour on 13mm plating) fore. Belt was closed by aft 25mm bulkhead near stern. It extended to main deck (and to upper deck abreast machinery). Machinery and steering gear were covered by 25mm deck.

Modernizations: mid-1918, Caledon, Cassandra: fore flying-off platform and hangar were replaced by turning flying-off platform amidship

1919, all survived: CT was replaced by lighter one with thinner armour.

1920s, all survived: + 2 x 1 - 40/39 2pdr QF Mk II

3/1942, Caradoc: - 2 x 1 - 40/39; + 5 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV, type 271, 290 radars

(9/1942 - 12/1943, Chatham DYd), Caledon: Full new armament was fitted: 3 x 2 - 102/45 QF Mk XVI, 2 x 2 - 40/56 Bofors Mk IV, type 273, 281B, 282 (2 sets), 285 radars. Fore superstructure was reconstructed.

10/1944, Caledon: + 6 x 1 - 40/56 Bofors Mk III, 1 x 1 - 20/70 Oerlikon Mk II/IV. Full displacement rose to 5320t, including 200t of led ballast.

1/1946, Caledon: 3 x 2 - 102/45 Mk XIX, 2 x 2 - 40/60 Mk IV Hazemeyer, 6 x 1 - 40/60 Mk III, 1 x 1 - 20/70 Mk III

1/1946, Caradoc: 5 x 1 - 152/45 P Mk XIII, 2 x 1 - 76/45 Mk II, 5 x 1 - 20/70 Mk III, 4 x 2 - 533 TT

Naval service: Caledon was hit by 305mm shell in Heligoland Bight 17/11/1917. Calypso took part in this action too, when all bridge personnel was killed by a shell. She was sunk by a torpedo from Italian submarine Bagnolini 12/6/1940 near Tobruk. Caradoc stranded on Fair Isle in 15/8/1917 with Cassandra. Cassandra was sunk by Russian mine in Gulf of Finland 5/12/1918.

Calypso 1919

 

Ivan Gogin, 2008-15