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fighting ships of the world

IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY (JAPAN)

TORPEDO SHIPS

FUBUKI destroyers (1928-1932)

Fubuki 1928

Akebono 1941

Name No Builder Laid down Launched Comp Fate
吹雪 <Fubuki> (ex-第35駆逐艦 <35-go>(No35))   Maizuru K K 6/1926 15/11/1927 8/1928 sunk 11/10/1942
東雲 <Shinonome> (ex-第36駆逐艦 <36-go>(No36))   Sasebo K K 8/1926 26/11/1927 7/1928 sunk 18/12/1941
薄雲 <Usugumo> (ex-第37駆逐艦 <37-go>(No37))   Ishikawajima, Tokyo 10/1926 26/12/1927 7/1928 sunk 7/7/1944
白雲 <Shirakumo> (ex-第38駆逐艦 <38-go>(No38))   Fujinagata, Osaka 10/1926 27/12/1927 7/1928 sunk 16/3/1944
磯波 <Isonami> (ex-第39駆逐艦 <39-go>(No39))   Uraga, Tokyo 10/1926 24/11/1927 6/1928 sunk 9/4/1943
白雪 <Shirayuki> (ex-第40駆逐艦 <40-go>(No40))   Yokohama Co, Yokohama 3/1927 20/3/1928 12/1928 sunk 3/3/1943
初雪 <Hatsuyuki> (ex-第41駆逐艦 <41-go>(No41))   Maizuru K K 4/1927 29/9/1927 3/1929 sunk 17/7/1943
深雪 <Miyuki> (ex-第42駆逐艦 <42-go>(No42))   Uraga, Tokyo 4/1927 26/6/1928 6/1929 collision 29/6/1934
叢雲 <Murakumo> (ex-第43駆逐艦 <43-go>(No43))   Fujinagata, Osaka 4/1927 27/9/1927 5/1928 sunk 12/10/1942
浦波 <Uranami> (ex-第44駆逐艦 <44-go>(No44))   Sasebo K K 4/1927 29/11/1928 6/1929 sunk 26/10/1944
敷波 <Shikinami> (ex-第45駆逐艦 <45-go>(No45))   Maizuru K K 7/1928 22/6/1929 12/1929 sunk 12/9/1944
綾波 <Ayanami> (ex-第46駆逐艦 <46-go>(No46))   Fujinagata, Osaka 1/1928 5/10/1929 4/1930 sunk 15/11/1942
朝霧 <Asagiri>   Sasebo K K 12/1928 18/11/1929 6/1930 sunk 28/8/1942
狭霧 <Sagiri>   Uraga, Tokyo 3/1929 23/12/1929 1/1931 sunk 24/12/1941
夕霧 <Yugiri>   Maizuru K K 4/1929 12/5/1930 12/1930 sunk 25/11/1943
天霧 <Amagiri>   Ishikawajima, Tokyo 11/1928 27/2/1930 11/1930 sunk 23/4/1944
<Oboro>   Sasebo K K 11/1929 8/11/1930 10/1931 sunk 16/10/1942
<Akebono>   Fujinagata, Osaka 10/1929 7/11/1930 7/1931 sunk 13/11/1944
<Sazanami>   Maizuru K K 2/1930 6/6/1931 5/1932 sunk 14/1/1944
<Ushio>   Uraga, Tokyo 12/1929 17/11/1930 11/1931 damaged 14/11/1944, never repaired

  

Displacement standard, t

1750

Displacement full, t

2097

Length, m

111.9 pp 115.3 wl 118.4 oa

Breadth, m

10.4

Draught, m

3.20

No of shafts

2

Machinery

Kampon geared steam turbines, 4 Kampon boilers

Power, h. p.

50000

Max speed, kts

38

Fuel, t

oil 500

Endurance, nm(kts)

4700(15)

Armament

3 x 2 - 127/50 3-shiki, 2 x 1 - 7.7/80, 3 x 3 - 610 TT (15), 2 DCT (18), 18 mines

Complement

197

  

 Ship project history: The history of creation of Fubuki class destroyers, or "special type" goes back to 1922, in which Japan has signed the Washington agreement according to which IJN can had destroyers with 201600t total displacement. Taking into account that Naval Staff plans provided to have 144 destroyers, standard displacement of each ship was limited by 1400t. This quantity was obviously insufficient for creation of the rigorous project, especially taking into account necessity of increase in a stock of fuel for actions in Pacific ocean at a great distance from bases. Eventually, in the Naval Staff it have decided to compensate a lack of tonnage by quality indicators of separately taken ships, having raised their displacement to 2000t. In October, 1922 there was a technical project of destroyer of "special type", or Toku Gata (2000t, 40kts, 2x2 120mm guns, 76mm AA gun and 6 610mm TT). During designing characteristics have undergone some changes: displacement has decreased to 1900t, 120mm guns have given way to 127mm, there was third triple TT, and speed has raised to 42kts. In April, 1924 project has been submitted to considering in Naval Staff, hence after detailed analysis it have shipped on finishing: designers were offered to lower whenever possible displacement, simultaneously having strengthened artillery, at least and by speed. After entering of corrections and repeated discussion the project (1680t, 35kts, 3x2 127mm guns, 1 76mm AA gun and 2 40mm MGs, 9 610mm TT) have approved in 1926.

First five ships (No35-39) have been ordered under the 1923 program, and following four (No40-43) under the special order in November, 1925. After some delays called financial troubles, orders have proceeded, and under the 1927 program 15 ships were laid down.

In 1928 in the Japanese Navy have refused numbering of destroyers, therefore the ships of "special type" were commissioned under names.

Destroyers of "special type" became the first-ever ships of this class on which the main artillery took places in waterproof turrets with splinterproof protection. For the first time in the Japanese practice destroyers have received 127mm/50 guns. Vertical aiming and ammunition feeding gears were hydraulic, but low feed rate reduced the importance of high elevation angle, therefore guns though were considered dual-purpose, as the antiaircraft acted unsatisfactorily.

In the course of building out-of-date 40mm Vickers MGs and 7.7mm MGs have excluded from arms structure. 13.2mm MGs intended for their replacement, but as the latter have appeared not ready, it was necessary to return 7.7mm (13.2mm MGs have appeared in 1933-1934).

As building of the ships of "special type" was stretched more than for five years, at the expense of changes brought in the project destroyers of differ years of completing had a number of differences, therefore all series it is accepted to share conditionally on three groups.

On pooled into the first group ten ships (No35-44) there were turret mounts with an elevation angle 40. The second group including following 10 destroyers (No45-54), differed in updated 127mm mounts with an elevation angle 75, improved fire control system (that has demanded to enter additional level over a bridge) and less appreciable boilers air intakes. The third group included only 4 destroyers to which at the expense of raise of steam output of separate boiler it was possible to shrink their number from four to three. These ships differed hardly by shorter hull and smaller displacement, besides, first funnel in which smoke duct from only one boiler was deduced, was notably more thin, than on 1st and 2nd series of "special type" destroyers. Hibiki became the first all-welded destroyer of the IJN.

Occurrence of the ships of "special type" has called the big resonance in naval circles of all world. Power of armament seemed disproportionate to the moderated, in general, displacement,  however outside of Japan very few people guessed, what price should be paid for this achievement. To these destroyers lacks, characteristic were peculiar to all Japanese ships of that time: first of all, excessive upper weight and stability which has worsened because of it. For achievement of the high requirements advanced by the Naval Staff concerning speed, arms and an endurance at the limited displacement designers had to show a considerable ingenuity. The weight decreased in all possible ways, in particular, at the expense of creation of the lightened machinery, usage of light alloys in a construction of superstructures and wide using of welding at assemblage of hulls. Despite it ships have appeared are supercharged, especially it concerned 2nd groups: their turrets have gone out on 20% more heavier, and bridges on one level higher. Besides, TTs received shields that has given an additional increase of the upper weight. Taking into account that arranged low in the hull machinery has been lightened, the stability was moderated to a dangerous limit. That fact, that at the new Japanese ships not everything is all right with stability, was acknowledged for the first time on March, 12th, 1934 when the torpedo boat Tomozuru has overturned. Assumptions were come out, as new destroyers are dangerous in this respect but before something has been made, there was "an incident with the Fourth fleet": during a storm at Hatsuyuki and Yugiri the fore ends have been broken off, three ships have lost a part of superstructures, four more have received various hull damages. Though any of the ships was not lost, it has demonstrated serious lacks of destroyers of "special type". For position correction thorough reconstruction of all ships constructed late 1920s - early 1930s has been conducted. On all destroyers of "special type" it have moderated height of bridges and funnels, ammunition stowage was decreased. By eight last ships new lightened turrets with an elevation angle 55 were installed. Besides, they have significantly strengthened hulls, and nearby 40t of solid ballast was stowed in holds. As a result standard displacement has increased from 1750 to 2090t, speed has decreased to 34kts.

Modernizations: 1933 - 1934, all: - 2 x 1 - 7.7/80; + 2 x 1 - 13.2/76

1935 - 1937, all survived: ballast was added; displacement increased to 2090 / 2570t, maximal speed fell to 34kts, fuel stowage was 475t; - 2 x 1 - 13.2/76; + 2 x 2 - 25/60 96-shiki

late 1942, all survived: + 2 DCT (36 totally)

1943 - 1944, all survived: new turrets were mounted with maximal elevation angle 75. - 1 x 2 - 127/50 (No 2), 1 x 2 - 25/60; + 4 x 3 - 25/60 96-shiki, 4 x 1 - 13.2/76

mid-1944, all survived: + 8 x 1 - 25/60 96-shiki, (2 - 6) x 1 - 13.2/76

Naval service: 29/6/1934 Muyuki was sunk at collision with destroyer Inazuma.

Shinonome 18/12/1941 was lost on Dutch minefield at off Borneo (under other data was sunk by Dutch aircraft or by mine laid by Dutch flying boat). Sagiri 24/12/1941 was sunk at Sarawak by Dutch submarine KXVI. Asagiri 28/8/1942 was sunk N off Sawo by American Marine Corps aircraft. Fubuki 11/10/1942 was sunk in battle at Cape Esperance (Guadalcanal) by gunfire of American cruisers San Francisco, Sault Lake City, Boise, Helena and destroyers of TF64.2. Murakumo 12/10/1942 was sunk at Sawo by American Marine Corps aircraft. Oboro 16/10/1942 was sunk NE off Kiska by American Army aircraft. Ayanami 14/11/1942 was sunk at Sawo by gunfire of American battleship Washington. Shirayuki 3/3/1943 was sunk in Bismarck sea by Amercian Army aircraft. Isonami was hard damaged 1/12/1942 by American aircraft at Boona Island, 9/4/1943 she was sunk SE off Celebes by American submarine Tautog. Hatsuyuki 17/7/1943 at Bougainville was sunk by American Army aircraft. Yugiri 16/5/1943 was hard damaged at Kavieng by American submarine Grayback, 25/11/1943 she was sunk E off Cape St. George (New Ireland) by American destroyers Charles AusburneClaxton and Dyson. Sazanami 14/1/1944 was sunk SE off Yap by American submarine Albacore. Shirakumo 16/3/1944 was sunk E off Hokkaido by American submarine Tautog. Amagiri 5/11/1943 was damaged by American carrier aircraft at Rabaul, 23/4/1944 she was lost S off Balikpapan on a mine. Usugumo 8/7/1944 was sunk SW off Paramushir by American submarine Skate. Shikinami 12/9/1944 was sunk S off Hong Kong by American submarine Growler. Uranami 26/10/1944 was sunk N off Panay (Philippines) by American carrier aircraft. Akebono 13/11/1944 was sunk at Cavite (Philippines) by American carrier aircraft. Ushio 14/11/1944 was hard damaged by American carrier aircraft in Manila Bay, towed off to Japan, but to an end of the war repair is not completed. 

 

Ayanami 1931

 

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Ivan Gogin, 2008-14